Banda Bahadur was Madho Das Bairagi before he met Guru Gobind Singh. He was always a humble and considerate devotee of the Guru. After his defeat of Sirhind, he abolished Jagirdari (feudalism). He made Mukhlisgarh his capital and issued currency in the name of Gurus. His official seal bore the name 'Deg Teg Fateh' (Hail sword and free kitchen)
The famous Sikh hero who was sent to Punjab from the Deccan by Guru Gobind Singh to punish the enemies of the Khalsa. He attacked Samana in November 1709 AD and captured Sirhind in May 1710 AD killing Wazir Khan its Nawab in the battle of Chappar Chin. Banda Bahadur was crowned at Lohgarh and struck coins in the name of the Guru. He extended his sway up to Pathankot. Abdul Samad Khan, the governor of Lahore assembled a big army which besieged Banda He was captured and at Delhi he was tortured to death in June 1716 AD.
Madho Das being blessed by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, after the Birs (magical forces) were unable to move Guru Ji from the bed, which made Madho Das realise the Guru's supreme Godly Powers.
Madho Das was initiated into the Khalsa fold and named Gurbax Singh (Blessing of the Guru). But he is popularily known as Banda Bahadur. When the Guru asked him what was his name, he had humbly replied, "I am your Banda (man=slave)!"
Banda was born in 1670 AD at Rajouri in Jammu State of Rajput parents and was named Lachhman Dev. He joined an order of bairagis (mendicants) at an early age and was given a new name, Madho Das. He went to south India and spent many years in Hindu monasteries. He had set up an establishment of his own at Nanded (Maharashtra), where he had lived for fifteen years before he met Guru Gobind Singh who after initiating him into Khalsa, gave him a new name of Gurbax Singh, but he is known as banda (man=slave) to describe his relationship to the Guru.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji giving 5 arrows to Banda Bahadur in 1708 at Nanded, Maharashtra, to fight the oppression and injustice of the Mughal rulers.
Fierce battle took place at Sirhind (where the Guru sons were martyred by burying them in a wall), between the Mughal forces and Banda Bahadur. Inside the town there was a lot of destruction of life and property. Inspite of grave provocation, he gave strict instructions to his troops not to destroy the mosque as it was also the abode of God.
Martyrdom of Sikhs in Delhi

In April 1715, Banda Bahadur was carrying on operations to the north of Amritsar, when a huge Mughal army attacked him. As his forces were being pur-sued from three sides, he had no other al-ternative but to rush into the large haveIi; or mansion, of Duni Chand in village Gurdas Nangal. This haveli, with its large com-pound, was improvised into a small fortress. The imperial forces laid siege to the village and Banda's provisions were soon ex-hausted. In the absence of grains, men ate grass, leaves, and the bark of trees. When even these were exhausted, they ate the flesh of horses, mules, and even the forbid-den oxen. The siege continued for eight months. Hundreds of Sikhs had died and the remaining were reduced to mere skeletons. They had become too weak to wield any weapons.
The imperial army entered the fortress on December 7,1716, and took the Sikhs as prisoners. Abdus Samad Khan, the Governor of Panjab, showed the manner in which he meant to deal with the lives of the defeated enemy by ordering the immedi-ate execution of over 200 prisoners, filling the ground with blood. The remainder, in-cluding Banda and his family, were put in chains and were sent first to Lahore, and then to Delhi.
Chained and fettered, Banda Singh was put in an iron cage, which was hooked up on the back of a tall elephant. Others were also chained and fastened on camels, horses, and mules. Some Sikhs were tied to-gether in pairs, chained together by their feet, waist, and neck, and placed in bul-lock carts. 300 Sikh heads were stuck up on spears and cart loads of Sikh heads
fol-lowed behind them. Zkariya Khan's cav-alry marched in the rear.
They reached Delhi on February 25, 1 716. On the arrival of the procession at the imperial fort, Banda bahadur, Baj Singh, Fateh Singh, and a few other leaders were handed over to Ibrahim-ud-Din Khan, Mir Atish, to be imprisoned at the Tripolia. The remaining Sikhs were handed over to Sarbrah Khan Kotwal for execution.

The army of Sikhs of Banda Bahadur, caught at Gurdas Nangal, brought to Delhi were tortured and executed

The executions on March 5, 1716. A hundred Sikhs were beheaded every day opposite the Chabotra Kotwali, in the space now attached to the Harding Library. Life was promised to anyone who would embrace Islam, but not even one Sikh abandoned his faith. They even tried to outbid one another to be the first to be sac-rificed, saying to the execu-tioner, "Me, mukta (deliverer), kill me first."
For three months, Banda Bahadur and his leading companions were spared in the hope of getting information about where their treasures lay. Banda's turn came on June 9,1716. He was taken to the tomb of Bahadur Shah in Mehrauli near Qutab Minar and was executed there. First, his three-year-old son, Ajai Singh, was hacked to bits before his eyes and his son's quivering heart was thrust into his mouth. Then Banda's eyes were taken out, his hands and feet were cut off, his flesh was torn with red-hot pincers, and finally his head was chopped off. He remained calm and serene up to the last. The remains of his body were removed by some Sikh shopkeepers of Delhi and were cremated near vadda-pull. The other prisoners were exe-cuted the next day.

Valour of Baj Singh

Baj Singh was a descendent of the fam-ily of the third Guru, Guru Amardas Ji.
He came from the village of Mirpur. He was given Amrit by Guru Gobind Singh Ji and was a celebrated, brave warrior of the Khalsa. In September 1708, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji invested Banda Bahadur with the authority to wage war against the religious and political tyranny in Panjab, Baj Singh was one of the five de-voted Sikhs the Guru gave to Banda as an advisory council. The other four Sikhs were Binod Singh, Ram Singh, Vijay Singh, and Kahn Singh. Baj Singh's brother, Ram Singh, was also one of the right hand men of Banda Bahadur.
After a few conquests, Banda attacked Sirhind on May 12, 710 to punish Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind, for his heinous crimes. In this battle Baj Singh faced Suchanand, the chief secretary of the Nawab, while Banda faced Nawab Wazir Khan. Baj Singh fought with such valour and ferocity that Suchanand and his forces were soon vanquished in the battlefield. Baj Singh then joined Banda Singh, and they converged around Wazir Khan. Baj Singh rushed toward Wazir Khan, who then threw a spear at him. Baj Singh caught hold of the spear and flung it back upon Wazir Khan. It struck the fore-head of Wazir Khan's horse. At this point Wazir Khan discharged an arrow, which struck Baj Singh's arm, and then rushed at him with his sword. Seeing Baj Singh under attack, Fateh Singh struck his sword with such a force that it cut Wazir Khan from shoulder to waist. Such valour, courage, and skillful wielding of arms by Sikh warriors like Baj Singh won the battle of Sirhind.

Baj (Falcon)Singh leaps with a sword and hhacked seven Mughal soldiers. King Farukh Siyar ran for his life.
The entire province of Sirhind, extend-ing from Satluj to Jamuna and from the Shivalik hills to Kanjpura, Karnal, and Kaithal, yielding Rs. 52 lakhs annually, came into Banda Bahadur's possession. Baj Singh was appointed the Governor of Sirhind. In the month of November 1710 Sham Khan, Faujdar (military leader) of Jallandar Doab, along with his allies at-tacked Sirhind. A fierce battle took place between the two forces of Sham Khan and Baj Singh. The Singhs could not hold Sirhind against a vastly superior force, and so they withdrew tactically to their headquarters at Lohgarh.
Later Baj Singh was one of the 740 Sikhs captured along with Banda Bahadur at Gurdas Nangal and brought to Delhi. While about 700 Singhs had been exe-cuted in March 1716, some of the Sikh leaders, along with Baj Singh and Fateh Singh, were kept alive to gain information about their treasure. When finally they were being executed near Qutab Minar on June 10,1 716, Emperor Farukh Siyar sarcastically asked if the famous Baj Singh, with his so-called unmatched valour, was present there. Bal Singh proudly announced his presence and demanded to be freed from his shackles if his valour was to be tested. As soon as his chains were removed, Baj Singh snatched a sword from a Mughal soldier, pounced upon the surrounding soldiers, and sent them running for their lives. He slashed the heads of seven guards before they could act. Emperor Farukh Siyar had a narrow escape. (Courtesy Dr. Santokh Singh-'The Guru's word)
The Great Banda Bahadur, who with the Guru's Bakshish became Gurbakhsh Singh from Madho Das bairagi and avenged the martyrdom of the young Sahibzadas at Sirhind and showed his might to the Mughal tyrants of the time.